What is Hydraulic Braking System Types and How It Works?

Why We Need  Hydraulic Braking System

The sort of driving scheme used before the hydraulic braking system was mechanical driving scheme, so now the issue arises if we already have mechanical braking system so why hydraulic braking scheme? Just let's figure out.
  • Since the driving of an automobile car is a very important safety component, the reactions from the brake pedal to the ultimate landing must be very fast, which was a mistake of a mechanical type braking system and is very well accomplished by the hydraulic braking scheme that offers fast braking.
  • Compared to mechanical braking, which is a very significant consideration for today's super and hyper vehicle sequence, the driving power produced by the hydraulic braking system is very big.
  • Due to the involvement of many moving parts, the frictional wear and tear in the mechanical braking system was very high, which is very well reduced to the optimum level with the introduction of a hydraulic braking system with very less moving parts compared to the mechanical one.
  • In the event of a hydraulic braking system, brake crash likelihood are much lower than in the mechanical scheme owing to the immediate association between the actuator (engine button or lever) and the brake disk or pen.
  • In the event of mechanical braking, the design complexity was very large, which is decreased by the implementation of a hydraulic braking system that has a straightforward and easy structure.
  • In the event of mechanical braking system, retention was heavy owing to the participation of complicated and more members, which is not a issue with the hydraulic braking scheme as it has easy construction with less moving parts.

Types 


The hydraulic braking scheme is categorized as 2-



1. Based on the frictional contact system, there are two kinds of hydraulic pumps–


(i)drum brake or inner hydraulic valve expansion.
(ii) Hydraulic disk brakes or internal hydraulic brakes.

2. Based on the brake force allocation-there are two kinds of hydraulic brakes-

(i)single-acting hydraulic pumps 
(ii) dual-acting hydraulic pumps

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Constructional Details



On the Basis of Frictional Contact Mechanism



1. Drum Hydraulic Brake or Internal Expanding Hydraulic Brakes-

The components engaged in the drum hydraulic braking system



  • Master cylinder–The easy motor and piston configuration (refer to the master cylinder document) transforms the mechanical power from the brake pedal into the air stress.
  • Brake pedal or brake lever-This brake pedal or brake lever is connected to the master frame by mechanical cord or linking rod in the same internal steering scheme as other brake pedal or brake lever.

The brake pedal is linked in such a way to the piston of the master cylinder that the wheel movement forces the piston to and fro within the master cylinder.

  • Drum cylinder-Another car inside the drum brake drum is linked to the brake pads, the high-pressure brake liquid from the brake rows reaches this cylinder. 
  • Brake rows-These are the hollow high-pressure metal pipe that links the master cylinder with the drum cylinder within these high-pressure brake fluid brake lines from the master cylinder streams that are accountable for further brake action.
  • Brake fluid reservoir–it is the easy tank comprising brake liquid that is attached to the master cylinder using brake tubes.
2. Disc  Hydraulic Brakes or External Contracting Hydraulic Brakes-
Hydraulic disk components and hydraulic drum brake components are almost the same as brake pedals or brake levers-exactly the same as the drum brakes listed above.
  • Brake rows–the same as the pen brake, but the master valve is connected to the disk calliper valve here.
  • Master cylinder-Similar to drum motors Brake liquid reservoir-Similar to drum brake.
  • Disc rotor-The plastic disk equipped with the engine core in such a way that it rotates with a vehicle's engine is the ground that makes frictional contact with the pedal shoe to prevent or de-accelerate the car.
  • Disc caliper- It is a small stationary component fitted on a disk just like a clamp, inside which there is a housing of brake shoes and hydraulic cylinder, when the brakes apply the brake shoes inside the caliper contracts and make frictional contact with the rotating disc for braking purposes.

On the Basis of Brake Force Distribution

All components of single-acting hydraulic brakes and double-acting hydraulic brakes, whether it is a single-acting drum type brake or single-acting disk type brake, are the same as above, the only difference is the type of master cylinder used that determines the distribution of brake force, i.e. In single-wheel steering or double-wheel braking, two-wheel braking in vehicles or all-wheel steering. So let's just look in detail at that.




1. Single Acting Hydraulic Brakes-

Simple single cylinder sort of master cylinder is used in single-acting hydraulic brake types, providing a restricted hydraulic pressure that can only be transmitted in one direction i.e. In bikes- only one wheel, in vehicles-only one pair of tires (front or back).



2. Double Acting Hydraulic Brakes-
In double-acting form of hydraulic brakes, double or tandem master cylinder is used which gives greater brake power that can be transmitted in double direction i.e. both wheels in bicycles and all gears in vehicles.

Working of a Hydraulic Braking System




1. Drum Hydraulic Brake

When the conductor controls are applied in a car fitted with hydraulic brakes of the drum type following the process-


  • The connecting rod connected between button and piston of a master cylinder shifts due to the motion or actuation of the brake button which in turn presses the piston of the master cylinder inside the master cylinder just like a medical syringe.
  • The compression of brake fluid inside the master cylinder requires place due to this motion of the piston inside the master cylinder, which in turn gives the transformation of mechanical energy into hydraulic pressure.
  • This extremely condensed air liquid from the master tank passes within the reservoir and this hydraulic force is transferred from the master tank to the brake tank.
  • Due to its elevated stress, when this high-pressure brake fluid joins the wheel cylinder or drum cylinder, motion requires place in the cylinder piston, which in turn extends the floating brake shoes connected to it.
  • Because of the development of the brake shoes, frictional contact is created between brake shoes and drum lining (the spinning drum portion), which in turn transforms the vehicle's kinetic energy into thermal power and ultimately causes flooding.

Single Acting Drum Type Braking – The operation of the single-acting drum type hydraulic pump is precisely the same as above, the driving power is obtained in this type of single wheel steering or a single couple of tires.


Double Acting Drum Type Braking- Due to the use of the hybrid master cylinder, the high-pressure brake liquid from the master cylinder is spread in two ways, i.e. both the tires in bicycles and all the tires in vehicles (see post on master cylinder).

2. Disc Hydraulic Brakes

When the rider works in a car fitted with external disk brakes, the method is the same as drum hydraulic bakes when the high-pressure brake liquid joins the brake rows, but afterwards it differs slightly –


  • The brake lines elevated pressure brake fluid reaches a disk brake system's calliper cylinder
  • This high-pressure brake fluid triggers motion in the piston of the calliper cylinder, which in turn triggers the brake pad motion inside the calliper to be connected to the piston.
  • Because of this brake pad motion, the spinning disk rotor is clamped and because of this frictional interaction between the brake pads and the spinning disk rotor, the vehicle's kinetic energy is converted into heat energy, which in turn prevents or de-accelerates the car.
Single Acting Disc Type Braking- The operation of single acting disk type hydraulic braking is precisely the same as above, the pumps power is obtained in this form of single wheel braking or a single couple of tires.

Double Acting Disc Type Braking- Due to the use of the tandem master cylinder, the high-pressure brake fluid from the master cylinder is spread in two ways, i.e. both the tires in bicycles and all the wheels in vehicles.

Application of Hydraulic Braking


  • Drum Type Hydraulic Brakes-Four wheels like Tata Ace are used in some low speeds.
  • Disc Type Hydraulic Brakes-They are commonly used in almost all vehicles such as Maruti Suzuki swift, Hyundai i20 etc., as well as in bicycles such as Bajaj pulsar 180, Ktm Duke 390, etc.
  • Single Acting Hydraulic Brakes-Pulsar 180 front valves are single working.
  • Dual Hydraulic Brakes Acting–All the above-mentioned vehicles.

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